Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a coronavirus of swine that causes transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) and was first documented in the U.S. in 1946. Veterinarians and swine producers across the country are familiar with the virus; the disease it causes; and ways to prevent, treat, and control it. This year, another swine enteric virus – Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) – of the Coronaviridae family has been found in the U.S. The PEDV has been identified in other countries since 1971 and is neither regulated as a foreign animal disease nor listed by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Furthermore, there are no zoonotic or food safety concerns with either virus.
Clinically, the diseases caused by these viruses are indistinguishable. The symptomatic treatment and biosecurity for both are similar; however, the vaccine for the TGEV doesn’t seem to be cross-protective for the PEDV. Distinguishing between the two disease agents requires laboratory diagnostics, which are already available. Veterinarians should check with their diagnostic laboratory to determine sampling and submission requirements.
Testing for the PEDV currently takes a little longer than it does for the TGEV; however, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services (USDA-APHIS-VS) is working with the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians (AAVLD) and the National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN) laboratories to enhance diagnostics. The agency’s also collaborating with the American Association of Swine Veterinarians (AASV), the National Pork Board (NPB), and state animal health partners to develop an epidemiological survey that those groups and others can administer to assist in gathering information that may help identify risk factors and management measures for the PEDV.